Valuable knowledge is available in the literature from documentation on prior failures that may be used to develop a logical analysis of the causes of failures that occur in service. Careful investigation, detailed observations, and sorting of a wide variety of information is important in analyzing how and why a part failed. The material selection, design, processing and fabrication, maintenance and service environment must all be given careful study. All possible modes of failure should be considered to assure against a recurrence from unknown factors. A variety of failures are discussed to emphasize the necessity of foreseeing the influence of the design and processing on response of the metal to the service environment.
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